Building plan is the set of drawings which consists of floor plan, site plan, cross sections, elevations, details of foundation, Columns, Beam & Slab reinforcement drawings, Detailing about Sanitation etc. for the ease of construction at site. Drawings are the medium of passing the views and concepts of an Architect or Civil Engineer into reality.
PURPOSE OF A BUILDING PLAN
Building plans are a graphical representation of what a building will look like after construction. They are used by builders and contractors to construct buildings of all kinds.
Building plans are also useful when it comes to estimating how much a project will cost, and preparing project budgets. The building plan with this Estimates can be used for House Loan purposes.
It’s also essential to get approval from govt. before construction of the building. If you’re staying at Municipality or Block you have to sanction your Building plan from respective officials.
PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING PLANNING
The basic objective of planning of building is to arrange all the Units of a building on all floors at a given level according to their functional requirements. By doing this, one can make best use of the space available for a building.
The various principles which should be kept in view while doing building planning. Such as
- Aspect – Arrangement of doors and windows.
- Prospect – It refers to selecting and locating the types of doors and windows for attainment of pleasing appearance.
- Privacy – it refers to privacy from one room to another and also from neighboring building.
- Grouping – disposition of various rooms in proper co-relation for convenience.
- Roominess – deriving maximum benefit from minimum dimension of a room.
- Sanitation – providing ample light, ventilation, facilities for cleaning sanitary items etc.
- Circulation – it refers to movement space (passage, lift, stairs).
- Flexibility – it refers to flexibility in the design for one purpose to another if possible.
- Economy – the building must be economical.
- Elegance – it refers to the aesthetic view.
- Practical consideration – it refers to strength and durability, simplicity, regular and also provision for addition/extension.
ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING PLAN
The Preparation of a set of building plans starts when an owner or developer approaches an Architect or Civil Engineer with an idea for a new building, considering the detailing and complexity of a project, different types of drawings are issued by an Architect or Civil Engineer for the easy understanding and smooth working of construction process.
A. FLOOR PLAN
A floor plan means, top view of any building or object. Floor plan is the most fundamental architectural diagram, a view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a particular level of a building. Floor plan view is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on to a horizontal plane cutting through the building. This shows the walls, windows, door and other features such as stairs, fittings and even furniture too.
B. SITE PLAN
Site plan is comprehensive detailed drawing of the building or an apartment representing whole plan of a building. It shows property boundaries and means of access to the site, and nearby structures if they are relevant to the design. For a construction project, the site plan also needs to show all the services connections like drainage and sewer lines, water supply, electrical and communications cables, exterior lighting etc.
C. FRONT ELEVATION
A front elevation drawing is an orthographic projection drawing that shows front side of the building. The purpose of that elevation drawing is to show the finished appearance of front side of the building and furnish vertical height dimensions.
D. CROSS SECTIONAL ELEVATION
A cross sectional elevation drawing means when we cut any building through a vertical plan, to get its inside view which give us detailed idea of that building. The sectional view shows us the thickness & size of different elements of structure such as beam, slab, wall, lintel with chajja, doors, windows etc.
E. DETAILS OF FOUNDATION
A building foundation actually performs a number of functions. The three most important are to bear the load of the building, anchor it against natural forces such as earthquakes, and to isolate it from ground moisture. The relative importance of these functions changes with the type of land underneath the building and the building design.
F. DETAILS OF SLAB & BEAM
Slab is an important structural element which is constructed to create flat and useful surfaces such as floors, roofs, and ceilings.Commonly, slabs are supported by beams, columns (concrete or steel), walls, or the ground. The depth of a concrete slab floor is very small compared to its span.
Beam is a horizontal structural element that withstand vertical loads, shear forces and bending moments. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the support points of the beam.
G. DETAILS OF SANITATION
A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of brick work, concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which back water from cistern or pour-flush toilets and grey-water through a pipe from inside a building or an outside toilet flows for primary treatment. Settling and anaerobic processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatment is only moderate.Effluent is infiltrated into the ground or transported via a sewer to a (semi-)centralized treatment plant. Accumulating fecal sludge needs to be dug out the chamber regularly and correctly disposed of.
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